Chinese version of Selected Works of Nyerere published


The Chinese version of  Selected Works of Julius Kambarage Nyerere is published.

On November 22, the Launching Ceremony for Selected Works of Julius Kambarage Nyerere & Symposium on Studies of Nyerere was held at East China Normal University (ECNU). 

H. E. Abdulrahaman Amiri Shimbo, Tanzania's Ambassador to China, Matilda Swilla Masuka, Minister-Counselor, Lusekelo Solomon Gwassa, a financial staff member of the Embassy of the United Republic of Tanzania came to the People’s Republic of China, and Joseph Kahama, Secretary General of the Sino-Tanzania Friendship Association, attended the ceremony.

Tong Shijun meets Ambassador Shimbo.

Tong Shijun, ECNU’s Chairman of the University Council, met the Ambassador and his colleagues. Ren Youqoun, ECNU’s Vice President& Vice Chairman of the University Council, made a speech on the ceremony. Mu Tao, Director of Institute of African Studies at ECNU, Wang Yan, Director of the ECNU Publishing House, main translators and editors of Selected Works of Julius Kambarage Nyerere, as well as some major Chinese experts on African studies participated in the ceremony.

On behalf of the University, Ren first expressed a welcome to Ambassador Shimbo and his colleagues, then made a brief introduction of ECNU’s studies on Africa and the University’s cooperation with African universities in his speech. 

According to Ren, ECNU has a good tradition in the study of Africa and has a close partnership with many African universities. The three-volume Overall History of Africa compiled by ECNU’s professor Ai Zhouchang, which was published by the ECNU Publishing House in 1995, is the finest representation of the utmost research level in African studies in China. The collection has won several awards bestowed by Chinese Central Government, Ministry of Education and Shanghai Municipal Government.

The Launching Ceremony for Selected Works of Julius Kambarage Nyerere is held at ECNU.

Ambassador Shimbo recalled the deep friendship and cooperation that China and Tanzania has had since the 1960s. He expressed thanks to the great contribution that the Chinese government and people have made to Tanzania’s economic development and the improvement of Tanzanian people’s living standard. He said China is a real friend of Tanzania. He also expressed appreciation of ECNU for holding the launching ceremony for Selected Works of Julius Kambarage Nyerere & Symposium on Studies of Nyerere.

During the ceremony, Mu Tao and Wang Yan introduced the translation and publication of Selected Works of Julius Kambarage Nyerere in succession. After that, experts participating in the ceremony made a symposium on issues related to Nyerere and the regional integration of Africa, Nyerere and modern Sino-Tanzania relations. 

Participants of the ceremony pose for a group photo.

The English version of  Selected Works of Julius Kambarage Nyerere has been published by the Oxford University Publishing House from the 1960s to 2011. The four-volume work is of great academic authority for readers to know Nyerere’s thoughts. The Chinese version can help more Chinese people to better understand Nyerere’s thoughts and African people’s national liberation and self-improvement in the second half of the 20th century.

During the ceremony,  Ambassador Shimbo, Ren Youqun,  Joseph Kahama and Mu Tao delivered speeches in succession.

 The People’s Republic of China is Tanzania's genuine friend

H. E. Abdulrahaman Amiri Shimbo

Ambassador Shimbo (center) says that China is or Tanzania'sgenuine  friend.

Honorable Prof. TONG Shijun, Party Secretary of East China Normal University;
Honorable Prof. REN Youqun, Vice President of East China Normal University;
Dr. Joseph Kahama,
Professors and Translators,
Very Distinguished Fellow Participants;
Ladies & Gentlemen;

Good Morning!

I am truly honored and delighted to join this eminent gathering that has set out a moment this morning allowing us an opportunity to reflect back on the great thoughts of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere. I have no doubts that every-one of us here is aware of the uncontested fact that Mwalimu Nyerere and Chairman Mao Zedong are the main architects of China-Tanzania Brotherly ties that we are very proud of and so comfortably enjoy today. The seeds of true friendship propagated in early 1960s through their visionary leadership are clearly blossoming and the benefits generating from this solid friendship are immeasurable confirming our shared desire to learn more on their never-aging timeless advises, the main reason we are here today.

Allow me to thank East China Normal University for meticulously organizing this event and for keeping us very well looked after. Also, many thanks should be in order to all of the parties that contributed to the successful conclusion of this compilation and translation of “Selected Works of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere”.

Today we celebrate Mwl’ Nyerere’s visionary leadership and the prophecy he put forth more than 50 years ago that stands very valid to-date when he said “In this world we have many friends, but we have one genuine friend, the People’s Republic of China.” Mwalimu Nyerere did not know China could develop to today’s economic growth strides when he declared this. As that period Mwalimu did not anticipate any economic benefits or returns by committing his focus into building a strong foundation for our two countries’ close ties. We are grateful Mwalimu chose a genuine friend like China who has stood relevant to Tanzania’s cause and that has not forgotten its old peers even after reaching the mighty peak of its economic heights. For Tanzania, China has not only been a friend in need, but also a friend indeed.

Chinese President Xi Jinping begins his visit to Tanzania on March 24, 2013.

Now, in our country, we have many iconic features that hugely display our long-term China-Tanzania commitment of respect and support of one another, in mega projects such as TAZARA, Friendship Textile Mill,  the National Assembly, the Mwalimu Nyerere Convention Centre and many other on-going project: The Liganga & Mchuchuma Iron Mining, Mtwara-Dar Gas Pipeline & Power Processing Plants, the National Fibre-Optic Network, E-education, just to mention very few of them.

China is currently Tanzania’s No.1 trading partner and claims prominence in investment projects reaping billions of US Dollars needed in the stabilization of our two countries’ economies and hence uplifting of the peoples’ livelihood. We believe this book we launch here today will be key first-hand reference of what Mwalimu dreamt of for an ideal people-to-people contact and co-existence in this world, ideas that are still valid and on-point today, not only to higher learning scholars but also to innumerable Chinese people for a number of generations to come, hence, keeping our torch of friendship alive.

Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai meet the delegation led by Nyerere on Februray 1965.

Chairman Mao meets Nyerere when during his first visit to China in 1965.

Our Father of the Nation, Nyerere had an unassuming nature and was a true believer of social unity, a pragmatic Pan-Africanist who whole-heartedly helped in the establishment of OAU (The Organization of African Unity)in 1963 standing together with other prominent leaders such as Kwame Nkrumah, Amical Cabral, and Haile Selassie Mariam to give Africa a reputable name that it has today. Mwalimu did not only believe in Pan-Africanism but also in a free and self-reliant Africa. Mwalimu could not rest even after Tanzania had already gained its independence; he gave it all to freedom struggles all over t(e continent, envisioning an Africa that one day will be completely free from colonial claws and economically self-reliant. This strong conviction is responsible for Mwalimu’s trustworthy personality that earned him friends as strong and reliable as the Chinese Great Leader, Chairman Mao Zedong. Today, we thank them for laying such a solid foundation of our two sides’ cooperation that currently focus in addressing our major challenges of freeing our people from poverty, neo-colonialism and self-entitled demeanor that have disrupted peace and security of our planet.

Once again, all of you present,
Long live China-Africa cooperation.
Long live China-Tanzania Brotherly Relations.

ECNU enjoys good history in  African studies & cooperation with African universities

Ren You Qun

Ren Youqun (center) introduces ECNU's history in  African studies & cooperation with African universities.

Your Excellency Ambassador Abdulrahaman Amiri Shimbo, distinguished guests from Tanzania, ladies and gentlemen:
Good morning!

Welcome to East China Normal University for co-witnessing the launching of the Selected Works of Julius Kambarage Nyerere. Also welcome to the symposium on studying Mwalimu Nyerere’s thoughts from political, economic and educational aspects. Firstly, please allow me on behalf of ECNU to extend my sincere gratitude to all your presence.

ECNU enjoys a good history in African studies with talents cultivated and new phases springing up. It could be dated back to as early as the 1960s when Office for Asian and African History Studies was established, attached to our History Department. Ever since then, African studies have become one of our outstanding fields in humanities. The three-volume collection Overall History of Africa, edited by a team led by Prof. Ai Zhouchang, is the finest representation of the utmost research level in African studies in China. The collection has won several awards bestowed by Chinese Central Government, Ministry of Education and Shanghai Municipal Government. Since the 21st Century, China and the International Community are paying increasing attention to African studies, along with that, we have also further strengthened our African Studies and our cooperation with African institutions.

Overall History of Africa is the finest representation of the utmost research level in African studies in China.

In accordance with Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Sharm el Sheikh Action Plan (2010-2012) worked out at the 4th Ministerial Conference of Forum on China-Africa Cooperation held in Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt in 2009, a one-to-one inter-institutional cooperation model between 20 Chinese higher education institutions and 20 African higher education institutions (the 20+20 Cooperation Plan) was implemented. ECNU, one of the twenty Chinese participating universities, signed the one-to-one cooperation agreement with University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) of Tanzania. The ECNU-UDSM strategic cooperative relationship was formally established in March 2010. In May 2011, UDSM President Rwekaza S. Mukandala visited ECNU. He attended the unveiling ceremony of ECNU-UDSM Joint Research Center for Tanzanian Studies and thereafter gave a wonderful speech on Tanzanian higher education. In November 2011 and November 2014, our University Council Chairman Tong Shijun and President Chen  Qun led ECNU delegations to UDSM respectively. ECNU and UDSM have close exchange and cooperation in studies of African History and in Estuarine and Coastal Research. Pleasantly speaking, I myself have once visited Tanzania, the scenery of which left a very deep impression on me.

In March 2010, our President then Yu Lizhong visited the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST, Arusha) and signed the Memorandum of Understanding with its President Burton Mwamila. In November 2014, President Chen Qun also visited this institution. ECNU and NM-AIST have cooperation such as visiting scholars and Joint Ph.D Degree program in fields of Aqua Environmental Sciences and Remote Sensing, and have China-Tanzania Comparative Joint Research in watershed management, hydro-sediment transport, water quality, environment and ecosystem, wetland, seawater encroachment and biodiversity. In June 2015, an ECNU delegation attended the Sustainable China-Tanzania Partnership Conference at NM-AIST. Academician Zhang Jing from our Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Research, co-host of the conference, together with his team had a fruitful meeting with his Tanzanian counterparts for deepening cooperation in relevant research areas.

Besides, it is worth mentioning that His Excellency Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Republic of Malawi then visited our university during Shanghai World Expo in May 2010, and delivered a speech on Africa’s opportunities and challenges in development and the Sino-African relationship. Since then on, studies on East Africa has become one key field for our African studies. ECNU also maintains comprehensive and intensive cooperation with other African partner universities including Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia and Makerere University in Uganda.

On October 22, visiting Tanzanian President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete visits the African Arts Town located in Song Zhuang, Beijing. During the visit, Ren Youqun sends a copy of the Selected Works of Juliys Nyerere to him as a special gift.

Currently, our African Studies lay great emphases mainly on the following three aspects:
The first is to make good use of the 20+20 Cooperation Plan for research in African history and culture, especially those of Tanzania. The four-volume Selected Works of Julius Kambarage Nyerere, one enlisted in the collection of East African History and Culture, is an important research outcome. And in the near future, two more will be published, that is, Biography of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere and History of Tanzam Railway .

The second is to take full advantage of ECNU’s research resources in international comparative education to study educational issues in Tanzania and other countries and regions in Africa, and to build up a cooperative platform. From 2010 till now, 11 Tanzanian participants in all have enrolled in International Master of Education in Educational Leadership and Policy Program and 7 Tanzanian principals in Tanzanian basic education section have taken part in Seminar for Primary and Secondary School Principals in Anglophone African Countries. Both are hosted by ECNU. These Tanzanian participants have become the strong ties between ECNU and Tanzanian education section, serving as a good bridge for educational communication.

The third is the cooperation between our State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research and the Institute of Marine Sciences in UDSM, mainly for studying sediment deposition and erosion dynamics in estuarine and coastal areas, biogeochemical process in mangrove ecosystem, and impact of offshore-water ecosystem structure and function on eutrophication, in East Africa under the influence of nature and human activities.

By now, we have not only mutual institutional visits and joint research but also joint student cultivation. Every year, ECNU sends 2-3 postgraduate or Ph.D students to UDSM with 3 Tanzanian students coming to ECNU as well. Currently, 6 Tanzanian students are studying on our campus. They are postgraduate students and Ph.D students.

It is understood that our cooperation with African institutions is a key point for promoting ECNU’s internationalization. Undoubtedly, that with Tanzania in particular is of profound value and meaning. I firmly believe that by the publication of the book and the symposium to be held today, we could not only know more about the great Mwalimu Nyerere but also nurturing our cooperation and exchanges with Tanzania. Last year when the 4th Tanzanian President His Excellency Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete paid an official visit to Beijing, I fortunately had the honor to be on behalf of ECNU to present the first volume of the selected works to him as a gift at African Art Town there. I am convinced that the book will have an enduring impact on future China-Africa exchanges.

Lastly, may today’s symposium a big success!
Thank you all!

Nyerere as an Ordinary Citizen, during and after his Presidency and Leadership of Tanzania

Joseph Kahama

Joseph Kahama introduces the role of Nyerere in Tanzania's development.

Excellency, Ambassador Abdulrahaman Shimbo, Ambassador Extraordinary & Plenipotentiary of the United Republic of Tanzania to The People’s Republic of China and your distinguished delegation
Prof. TONG Shijun,
Prof. REN Youqun,
Prof. MU Tao,
Prof. DING Shuzhe,
Mr. WANG Subin,
Our Dear Friend of Africa and Tanzania, Ms. DONG Qixin
The Distinguished Panel of Experts here before us
Members of the Press, here present Invited Guests, our dear Tanzanian students here at ECNU, Ladies & Gentlemen:


In the outset, I wish to thank the Leadership of East China Normal University for having given me the honor of giving my remarks on this momentous and significant ceremony and symposium, whereby the selected works of a great leader, a revolutionary in thought and action, Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere of Tanzania, as translated into Chinese is launched.

I'd like to give my brief remarks on the topic of “Nyerere as an Ordinary Citizen, during and after his Presidency and Leadership of Tanzania.”

It is a well-documented fact that many political leaders in the world and especially in the context of Africa, rarely give up political power or retire from active politics on their own volition. This was not so with Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, who not only resigned before in the 1960s, but did so again in 1985, when he retired from active politics, both times on his own volition.

Secondly, it would be an academic anomaly to write volumes about Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere’s politics, policies and political actions during his Presidency and leadership of TANU, later followed by CCM, whilst leaving out writing about him as an ordinary citizen. It will be unfortunate if writings on Julius Nyerere focused only his politics, policies and other aspects of the polity, whilst missing out on studying Mwalimu as a private and ordinary man.

I would like to submit, suggest and recommend that ECNU embark on writing a book on Nyerere as an Ordinary Citizen, possibly choosing the period 1979-1999. Why do I suggest covering this period? This period was a particularly important period as the period 1979 was when the CCM party was still young, having been formed by amalgamating TANU from the Mainland and ASP from Zanzibar in 1977. It is also a stormy period where the country was invaded by Uganda under, Idi Amin in 1979 and went to war to defend herself. Tanzania won the war, at great cost. This period also witnessed economic hardship, the death of the country’s Prime Minister, Edward Moringe Sokoine, as well as leadership change within the CCM, following Mwalimu Nyerere’s decision to retire and go back to ordinary life (in Butiama, Musoma) where he planned to farm.

The aforementioned period is therefore a mixed bag of challenges and a period that required tough decisions that needed to be sternly implemented and adhered to. The question to ask critically is whether Mwalimu Nyerere was able to remain calm and composed during this period and if so how much can that disposition be attributed to his being an ordinary citizen?

In studying this topic of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere as an ordinary citizen, ECNU may wish to critically research, analyze, assess and answer the following questions:

Were Mwalimu Nyerere’s (CCM party’s) policies informed by his personal (and ordinary life) or was his personal life informed by his policies?
During the period under study, what constituted an ordinary life of an ordinary Tanzanian? How much of this was Mwalimu Nyerere able to identify with and did his life in any way resemble that of an ordinary citizen?
Apart from Mwalimu’s relationship with the country that he led and his political party, how was his relationship with the communities and neighbours that surrounded his house, both in Msasani Dar es Salaam and in Butiama, Musoma?. He also knew many of them by name.
Were Nyerere’s children treated differently by the public and at school and learning institutions? Did they travel on special transport to and from school or did they use transport as ordinary Tanzanians? Why and why not?
After retirement from active politics in 1985-1990, where did Nyerere live? Where did he go to? How was his free time spent?. How did he relate to people? Did he continue to engage with ordinary people? How? Why?
What type of a house did Mwalimu live in at Butiama and why?
Why did the late Mwalimu Nyerere not write his Memoirs? If he had planned to write his Memoirs, why did he take too long before writing them since his retirement?

The study and research may also wish to critically ask the following questions:
Why did Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere translate some of William Shakespeare books into Kiswahili? What informed his decision to do this? Was it Mwalimu’s love for poetry or was it his love for politics? Did Mwalimu ever leave politics entirely or did he remain as a distant spectator, influencing and directing the players at his will and as he wished, like Shakespeare would say, “As flies to wonton boys, are we to the gods, they kill us for their sport”? Why did Mwalimu also translate Biblical writings? If Mwalimu found time to do these, why was he not working on his Memoirs or was he?

Before and immediately after Independence, Mwalimu Nyerere was a chain smoker. Why did he quit smoking?
How frequently did Mwalimu engage ordinary citizens? Why? How? Why not? Where?
There is great utility in studying a great man and intellect like was Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, looking at him from the perspective of a private and ordinary citizen.

As in any colossal work worthy of research, timing is key. The time to write a book of Mwalimu Nyerere as a private citizen and ordinary man is now, having the benefit of both primary and secondary sources of information that can be used to inform the study, research and the book. This will be more of a qualitative study.

The study will have the benefit of working and interviewing people who are family members and personalities who worked very closely with him and who may have known Mwalimu intimately. ECNU may wish to interview people who had the fortune to work closely with Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere during his presidency and leadership.

In closing, I wish to thank the leadership of ECNU for having given me the opportunity to give my brief remarks during this momentous today. May I strongly suggest that this are of further study be embarked upon by ECNU, in collaboration with UDSM, Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere University of Science and Technology and the Tanzanian China Friendship Promotion Association. I thank the former president of The United Republic of Tanzania, Hon. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, for having included me as a member of a team to mobilize funds and other resources to make this dream and plan a reality in 2014. I welcome ECNU to work with us on this noble initiative.

On April 12,1968, the first batch of Chinese engineering assitant crew left Guangzhou for Tanzania.

Chinese and Tanzania crew work on the Tanzam Railway.

Further, I take this opportunity to thank the Communist Party of China and the Government of The People’s Republic of China for assisting Africa in general and Tanzania in specific for the entire 50 plus years of our great friendship. The Communist Party of China has assisted Tanzania in many fields and noble initiatives:
Various educational scholarships
Industrialization (Textile mills, Farming machinery and so on)
Infrastructure and transportation (The TAZARA, roads, bridges and airports)
Now with investment through direct foreign investments by Chinese corporations and people to people initiatives and cooperation

Long live China-Africa friendship.
Long live Tanzania-China friendship & cooperation.

The Beginning of Modern China-Tanzania Ties by Julius K. Nyerere and Zhou Enlai

Mu Tao

 Nyerere and Zhou Enlai

As is known to all, it is the 50th anniversary this year since Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere first visited China and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai visited Tanzania in 1965. These events have great significance to the relations between China and Tanzania, which I regard as the Opening of Modern China-Tanzania Ties.

Why? Let’s review the China-Tanzania relation before the 1960s.

China and Tanzania have enjoyed a long and friendly relationship during the past one thousand years. There were traces of Chinese activities in Africa as early as in the Tang Dynasty. Chinese porcelain was found along the coasts of Tanganyika and Chinese coins of the 9th Century were discovered in Zanzibar Island. Now these objects could be seen in the National Museum of Tanzania. In the 14th Century, some Chinese ships came to Tanzania directly.

During the German colonialist’s occupying Tanganyika, about one thousand Chinese labours were brought to Tanganyika to build a railway, and even the name of a village there along the railway was changed, re-named as Shanghai. Maybe some of the Chinese labours were from Shanghai County.

But there were few connections between China and Tanganyika and Zanzibar during the British Protectorate period until 1961.

Mwalimu Nyerere announced Tanganyika’s independence in 1961. A few days later, Mwalimu Nyerere declared to recognize the People’s Republic of China, and Tanganyika became the tenth country to do so in the African continent.

In 1963, President Nyerere told media that he would visit China, and the Chinese Premier then Zhou Enlai would visit Tanganyika the next year. But two events posed bar to the two planned visits. One was Zanzibar’s revolution in the early 1964. The other was a military coup d'etat against Nyerere.

After these two events were resolved, and Tanganyika and Zanzibar were united into one country, Chinese and Tanzanian leaders decided to visit each other’s country.

In February 1965, President Nyerere left for his first visit to China. He was warmly welcomed by Chinese people. On February 26, he addressed many thousands of people at Tian An-men Square in Beijing. He said that some Western politicians had told him that China was dangerous, and she was so clever that a few of her technicians could undermine the whole Tanzania. In response to that, Mwalimu gave his answer like this, “I say again now—nonsense. We offer the hand of friendship to China as that to America, Russia, Britain, and other countries... The fear of others will not affect Tanzania’s friendship with China.”

Four months later, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai visited Tanzania in June of 1965, 50 years from now.

These were the first Tanzanian President’s visit to China, and the first Chinese leader’s visit to Tanzania. After that, there are more and more leaders of the two countries visiting each other.

Secondly, let’s look at the important changes in the relations between China and Tanzania after the mutual visits between the two countries.

One was the two countries’ mutual supports in political concern. Tanzania, like some other African countries, took the socialism path shortly after obtaining its independence in the 1960s. China supported Tanzania in its struggle of liberation in southern Africa, including providing military support and helping train Tanzanian army; In return, the Tanzanian government supported China’s political requests in the international community.

Back then, China was trying hard to re-enter the UN. President Nyerere supported it firmly. As early as in 1961, he said in his speech “The Courage of Reconciliation,” that the United States was the only meeting place for the United Nations, but some states were not UN members, for example Switzerland, East Germany (German Democratic Republic) and China. In February 1965, he also said that this was fundamentally important, and the great People’s Republic of China must be able to join this world organization. Since then, Tanzania and other friendly countries made a motion at the General Assembly of the United Nations each year.

In 1971, China was finally re-admitted to the UN. Among the African countries that supported this motion, Tanzania played an active role.

Another important change was the rapid development in economic cooperation between China and Tanzania.

One notable highpoint was the 1860-kilometer-long Tanzam Railway, which was built with the help of China. During the first visit to China, President Nyerere talked with Premier Zhou Enlai about building the railway. At that time, the newly-independent Zambia had a hard time exporting bronze. China decided to help build the Tanzam Railway in the 1970s, so that Zambia could export bronze through Tanzania. But that cost a hefty price. At the time, China was suffering from economic hardship. And during the arduous building of the railway, over 64 Chinese technicians and workers sacrificed their lives for it.

Besides, there was cooperation in agriculture and the industrial areas.

The third important change was that in trade. In 1961, Tanganyika had almost no trade with China, but in 1966 there was a total bilateral trade volume of more than TZS50 million, of which Tanzanian cotton, coffee, and some other agricultural products were exported to, and some manufactured goods were imported from, China.

Today, the two countries still maintain close ties. Tanzania, one of the five member states in East African Community, continues to attract the most Chinese investment, with 3 billion US dollars flowing into its mining sector in 2011. And their cooperation is of a wide range.

Chinese President XI Jinping chose Tanzania as the second destination in his first official visit to foreign countries in 2013, which signified the importance of China’s bilateral relationship with Tanzania.

After that visit, China gave more investment to Tanzania. The Chinese government, for example, recently signed an agreement with Tanzania to whom a $1.06-billion loan is provided to construct a natural gas pipeline connecting the southern part of the country to its commercial capital, Dar es Salaam. Chinese companies are involved in the extensive port developments at Lamu, Tanga, and Bagamoyue.

Lastly, I want to talk about the future China-Tanzania relations.

They are beneficial for both countries—Tanzania could get prospects for development through knowledge transfer, Economic Protection Zones and large-scale Chinese investments, while China gains access to new markets, natural resources, and increased political currency thanks to the relations. That could be interpreted as the win-win outcome.

Still, we should not avoid some existing problems in the relations.

But, I think the key point is that we don’t know each other deeply. Many Chinese know Tanzania merely with regard to Tanzam Railway. Some Tanzanian see China as a bigger and richer country, but they have little knowledge that many Chinese people are still in poverty.

Then how to solve these problems? I have some solutions and suggestions.

Firstly, we should increase the non-governmental cooperation between our two countries. Cooperation does exist at a government-to-government and business-to-business level, whilst there are also many micro-interactions such as Chinese people’s running small business, hospitals, restaurants, and other enterprises in Tanzania. The Tanzam Railway completed in 1976 employed over 50,000 Chinese, many of whom stayed on and many more have flocked to the continent over the past decade or so to seek economic opportunities. Since the end of colonialism, Chinese doctors, engineers and teachers have also played a strong role in supporting Tanzania. Chinese tourists to Tanzania are also on the rise. In addition, marriages between Chinese and African people are common and often happy as well.

Secondly, from the academic perspective, China has several well-established and respected African Studies departments in its large universities and the Chinese Central Government has offered a number of scholarships to African students, including those studying at our university, ECNU. Through these exchanges between scholars and students, we could know each other more deeply.

Thirdly, we could promote more of the good impressions in history between two countries, for example, the friendly relations between the first generation leaders of two countries, just like Mwalimu Julius Nyerere and Premier Zhou Enlai. That is my objective for giving this speech here, and for translating Mwalimu Nyerere’s four-volume works into Chinese.


East China Normal University